Life Cycle Of A Mosquito
Environmental methods are aimed at the breeding and resting places of mosquitoes. Some of these measures include the following:
- Draining of stagnant or standing water in gutters
- Disposing unwanted containers (such as tin cans) which collect water and provide suitable breeding places.
- Clearing shrubs and dense vegetation around residential areas.
- Removing aquatic plants to allow free flow of water.
- Properly disposing materials like polythene, coconut shell and empty sardine tin that are capable of collecting and storing rain water.
- Repairing all broken taps in the area so that they do not serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
- Adding salt to ant-traps, thus making the water unsuitable for egg development.
ADVANTAGES OF ENVIROMENTAL METHOD
- It keeps the environment clean.
- It does not require special skills to apply.
- It is effective in reducing mosquito population.
- It is chemical free and therefore does not pollute the environment.
- It is cheap to apply
DISADVANTAGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL METHOD
- It is a difficult task since a lot of energy and time is spent.
- It’s only the breeding places that are destroyed but not killing the entire mosquitoes.
- It requires the effort of an entire community to be effective.
- It does not control adult mosquitoes from coming from neighboring communities.
This involves the use of insecticides which kills the various stages of the mosquitoes. Chemical methods include the following:
- Using insecticide spray to kill adult mosquitoes.
- Sleeping in mosquito treated nets. Mosquitoes are killed when they come intact with the net.
- Spraying of vegetation around home with insecticides to reduce mosquito population.
- Use of larvicides and pupicides to destroy larvae and pupae respectively.
ADVANTAGES OF CHEMICAL METHOD
- It does not require lot of physical work compared to environmental method.
- It ensures that mosquitoes are killed by insecticides or chemicals.
- Both larvae and pupae of mosquitoes are killed .
- Method is very fast and easy to apply. Not too much time is spent .
- It can be used to control mosquito population on a large scale.
DISADVANTAGES OF CHEMICAL METHOD
- Chemicals used pollute the environment especially when they are overused.
- Mosquitoes develop resistance to repeated use of insecticides.
- The method is expensive to apply.
- Chemicals sprayed on water bodies kill other organisms that are not harmful. Eg small fishes.
- Method cannot be applied on drinking water sources.
Biological method involves the use of predators, parasites and pathogens to reduce the mosquito population. Biological method includes the following:
- The use of mosquito fish (called Gambusia) in ponds, unused swimming pools, lagoons, mine pits etc. to feed on mosquito larvae.
- The use of guppies (small fishes) in water bodies that are polluted to feed on mosquito larvae. These fishes are capable of living in water bodies that are polluted.
- The use of tilapia in ponds to feed on mosquito larvae.
ADVANTAGES OF BIOLOGICAL METHOD
- It does not pollute the environment.
- The method is less expensive compared to the chemical method.
- Human energy is less applied.
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOLOGICAL METHOD
- It is difficult in obtaining mosquito eating fishes to introduce into ponds and ditches.
- It is quite a slow method of controlling mosquitoes compared to chemical method.
- It requires technical know how to apply.
- It cannot be used to control mosquitoes on a large scale.
Genetic method involves the release of sterile male into the environment. Whenever these sterile males cross with females, no eggs are produced and therefore no offspring is produced. This will cause the mosquito population to reduce.
ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC METHOD
- Mosquitoes are controlled without polluting the environment.
- Only mosquitoes are affected.
- It does not require lot of physical work compared to the environmental method.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE GENETIC METHOD
- It is an expensive method of controlling mosquitoes.
- It requires technical expertise.
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